For Authors

INTRODUCTION TO PARENTHETICAL CITATIONS

  • The APA style calls for three kinds of information to be included in in-text citations.
  • The author's last name and the work's date of publication must always appear, and these items must match exactly the corresponding entry in the references list.
  • The third kind of information, the page number, appears only in a citation to a direct quotation.

Where to Place Parenthetical Citations

1. Idea-Focused

  • Place the author(s) and date(s) in parentheses at an appropriate place in or at the end of a sentence.

Schemata are accepted as interlocking mental structures representing readers’ knowledge (Perkins, 1983; Zaher, 1987; Anderson & Pearson, 1988; Cook, 1997; Alderson, 2000; Brown, 2001; & Harmer, 2001) of ordinary events (Nassaji, 2002).

2. Researcher-Focused

  • Place only the date in parentheses.

Nassaji (2002) discusses one of the unexpected findings of schema-based studies that would account for working memory.

3. Chronology-Focused

  • Integrate both the author and date into your sentence.

In 1932, Bartlett introduced Schema Theory.

Cite source with 1 or 2 authors

First and subsequent citations

  • Within a paragraph, omit the year in citations after the first one if no confusion with other studies will result

Fisher (1999) administered a questionnaire . . . Fisher’s results indicated . . .

[new paragraph] The questionnaire administered by Fisher (1999) was used by . . .

A source with 1 or 2 authors

  • Cite name(s) in first and all subsequent citations

      (Adkins & Singh, 2001)

      Adkins and Singh (2001)

 Authors with same surname

  • Use initials even if the years are different

      D. Baldwin (2001) and M. L. Baldwin (1999)

 

Cite source with three or more authors

A source with three to five authors

  • In all citations after the first, use the first author's name followed by et al.

First citation: (Baldwin, Bevan, & Beshalke, 2000)

Subsequent citation: (Baldwin et al., 2000)

A source with six or more authors

  • Use the first author's name followed by et al. in all citations

6 authors: (Utley et al., 2001)

7 authors: (Yawn et al., 2001)

 [Note: In the reference list, use of et al. begins with 7-author references.]

Sources with two or more six-author groups with same first surname

  • If two or more six-author groups shorten to the same surname, cite the surnames of as many subsequent authors as needed to distinguish references.

(Baldwin, Utley et al., 2001)

(Baldwin, Bevan et al., 2000)

Cite source with no author

 A source with no author

  • Use the first few words of the title – in quotation marks for article or chapter, in italics for self-contained item

("Writing Strategies", 2001)

(Second Language Acquisition, 2001)

An edited work with no author

  • Use editor(s) names in the author position

 Cite multiple sources in one reference

 Two or more works in parentheses

  • Arrange by order of the reference list; use a semicolon between works

Several researchers (Greenberg, Domitrovich, & Bumbarger, 2000; Roy, 1995; Yawn et al., 2000) . . .

Representative Works

  • e.g. (for Sample Citation) before parenthetical citations

The need for more effective prevention of mental illness in children has been the focus of many reports (e.g. National Institute of Mental Health, 1998; U.S. Public Health Service, 2000; Weist, 2001).

  • Major work plus others

Use see also after major work

(Roy, 1995; see also Embar-Seddon, 2000; Greenberg, 2001)

Citing sources

  • There are two ways in which you can refer to, or cite, another person's work:

by reporting or

 by direct quotation.

Reporting

  • This simply means reporting the other writer's ideas into your own words. You can either paraphrase if you want to keep the length the same or summarise if you want to make the text shorter. There are two main ways of showing that you have used another writer's ideas:
  • İntegral

According to Peters (1983) evidence from first language acquisition indicates that lexical phrases are learnt first as unanalysed lexical chunks.

Evidence from first language acquisition indicating that lexical phrases are learnt first as unanalysed lexical chunks was given by Peters (1983).

  • non-integral

Evidence from first language acquisition (Peters, 1983) indicates that lexical phrases are learnt first as unanalysed lexical chunks.

Lexical phrases are learnt first as unanalysed lexical chunks (Peters, 1983).

Ways of presenting quotations

  • Widdowson (1979, p. 5) states that "there is a good deal of argument in favour of extending the concept of competence to cover the ability to use language to communicative effect."
  • According to Widdowson (1979),"there is a good deal of argument in favour of extending the concept of competence to cover the ability to use language to communicative effect" (p. 5).
  •  According to Widdowson, "there is a good deal of argument in favour of extending the concept of competence to cover the ability to use language to communicative effect" (1979, p. 5).
  • According to one researcher, "there is a good deal of argument in favour of extending the concept of competence to cover the ability to use language to communicative effect" (Widdowson, 1979, p. 5).

Direct Quotation

When you quote another author's words exactly. For example:

Hillocks (1982) similarly reviews dozens of research findings and states “the available research suggests that teaching by written comment on compositions is generally ineffective" (p. 267).

Three dots - ellipsis (...)

When you omit some of the author’s original words that are not relevant to your writing, use three dots (...) to indicate where you have omitted words.

Example:

Carrell found that native ... readers used context and transparency to improve their comprehension. However, these subjects, contrary to prediction, recalled the unfamiliar ... [text] better than they recalled ... [the familiar]. None of the background knowledge factors influenced the high-ntermediate L2 readers. For the advanced group of L2 readers only the familiarity factor influenced reading comprehension. They, like the L1 readers, recalled the unfamiliar ... [text] better than the more familiar ... [one]. (Roller and Matambo, 1992, p.130).

Brackets ([...])

If you need to insert material (additions or explanations) into a quotation, use brackets, ([...]).

Example:

Carrell found that native ... readers used context and transparency to improve their comprehension. However, these subjects, contrary to prediction, recalled the unfamiliar ... [text] better than they recalled ... [the familiar]. None of the background knowledge factors influenced the high-intermediate L2 readers. For the advanced group of L2 readers only the familiarity factor influenced reading comprehension. They, like the L1 readers, recalled the  unfamiliar ... [text] better than the more familiar ... [one]. (Roller and Matambo, 1992, p.130).

Single quotation marks (‘...’)

If the material quoted already contains a quotation, use single quotation marks for the original quotation (‘...’).

Example:

Schemata are thought to be flexible notions and Atkinson (1999: 639-640) states that “schemas and networks of connections, including but not limited to ‘culture in the head’ ... interact with worldly phenomena, including, but not limited to ‘culture in the world’”.

Long quotations

Introduce lengthy quotations with a full sentence that helps capture how it fits into your argument. If your quotation is longer than four lines (in the APA system, 40 words or more), do not place it in quotation marks. Instead, set it off as a block quotation.

The term working memory is now generally preferred to short-term memory. Working memory refers to the information that is activated, or given mental stimulation, for immediate storage and processing. Working memory involves the active use of cognitive processes such as recognising and storing word information, using syntactic information, connecting pronoun references, building overall text structure, integrating and restructuring information, assessing inferences and adapting reader goals. (Grabe & Stoller, 2002, p. 18)

Secondary sources

If you have not actually read the work you are referring to, you should give the reference for the secondary source - what you have read. In the text, you should then use the following method:

According to Jones (as cited in Smith, 1982, p. 276), the ....

Consider examples

  • White (1987, p.56, quoted in Hall, 1993, p.35) argued that Australia would benefit from a reduction in levels of government.
  • In this case both authors are listed separately in the reference.
  • Gregory (1996, cited in Taylor, 1998, pp.12-16) suggested that schools should do more to educate students about the dangers of drug abuse.
  • In this case, only Taylor, whose book you have read, is listed in your reference.