Framework for Analysis of Class Talk (FACT) to Inform Teachers About their Patterns of Communication to Promote Meaningful Learning
Nasir Mahmood & Sumbul Asghar
pp. 1 - 24
Observational studies in classroom interaction have long been source of informing readers about the classroom dynamics. The advent of modern technologies in 20th century has revolutionized the possibilities for observational researchers but methods of research have not been correspondingly reformed to utilize these emerging possibilities. This paper focused on development of a framework for analysis of class talk to inform teachers about pattern of communication that are most suitable for promoting meaningful learning. The rationale behind development of FACT emerged from limited scope of the classroom interaction being reported in the research at present. Review of literature revealed that very few studies refer to the full text of the classroom protocol but focus on selected extracts from class talk which best suits their research questions. Selected extracts sometime are used out of context and interpreted out of proportions. It becomes very difficult for the readers to envision the context in which the class talk occurred. FACT was developed to overcome the problem mentioned above and is based on studying class talk as it happens without /with minimum interference/manipulation, accounting for complete class talk to give image of the whole class and then focusing on any/more parts of the lesson as required and for having a framework analyzing sequence of lesson instead of isolated lesson. FACT focused on three dimensions of classroom interaction further sub-divided into two categories each. The categories were Nature of Talk (Uni-focal, Multi-focal), Content of Talk (Thematic, Contextual) and Participants of Talk (Teacher-student, Student-student). Interaction of these three dimensions leads to eight teaching approaches. It is assumed that all types of class talk will be covered in these eight teaching approaches. The use of this framework can be used a source of Continuous Professional Development (CPD) by the teachers to build patterns of talk potentially helpful in improving the effectiveness of their teaching.
Keywords: Class talk, interaction analysis, Continuous Professional Development (CPD)
Self-Compassion And Self-Deception
pp. 25 - 33
The purpose of this research is to investigate the relationships between self-compassion and self- deception. Participants were 544 university students from Sakarya University, Turkey, who completed the Self- compassion Scale and the Self-deception Scale. Results demonstrated that self-kindness, awareness of common humanity, and mindfulness positively and self-judgment, common humanity, and isolation negatively related to self- deception. Results from structural equation modeling showed that the model fitted well (yİ = 38.88, df = 19, p = .0046, GFI = .98, AGFI = .97, CFI = .99, NFI = .98, RFI = .98, IFI = .99, RMSEA = .044, and SRMR= .045). According to this model self-deception was predicted positively by self-kindness, awareness of common humanity, and mindfulness and negatively by self-judgment, common humanity, and isolation. Results were discussed in the light of literature.
Keywords: self-compassion, self-deception, structural equation modeling