The Effect Of Jigsaw-I Cooperative Learning Technique On Students’ Understanding About Basic Organic Chemistry Concepts
Gülşen ÇAĞATAY & Gökhan DEMİRCİOĞLU
Manuscript Views: 110 | Manuscript Download: 632
The purpose of this study was to investigate effect of Jigsaw-1 Cooperative Learning technique on students’ understanding and alternative conceptions concerning basic organic chemistry concepts. The study was conducted with a total of 52 9th grade students in a high school in Trabzon. The study used quasi-experimental design (an experimental group and a control group). While experimental group students performed activities based on Jigsaw 1 technique, control group students were taught with traditional approach. The treatment lasted for three lesson hours in both groups. An Organic Chemistry Achievement Test involving 5 open-ended questions was used to collect data. The data obtained from pre- and post-tests of both groups was compared with the independent t-test. The post-test results showed that there was a significant difference between groups in favor of the experimental group. In other words, the experimental group students taught with Jigsaw I technique performed better in the post-test than the control group.
- Aydın, S. (2011). Effect of cooperative learning and traditional methods on students’ achievements and identifications of laboratory equipments in science-technology laboratory course, Educational Research and Reviews, 6(9), 636-644.
- Bowen, C. W. (2000). A quantitative literature review of cooperative learning effects on high school and college chemistry achievement. Journal of Chemical Education, 77(2), 116-119.
- Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ:awrence Earlbaum Associates
- Çalık, M., Ayas, A. & Coll, R.K. (2007). Enhancing pre-service primaryteachers’ conceptual understanding of solution chemistry with conceptual change text. International Journal of Science Mathematics Education, 5(1), 1-28.
- Demircioğlu, G.. Özmen, H. and Ayas,A.(2004).Eğitim Bilimleri / Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice . 73-80
- Doymuş, K., (2008). Teaching Chemical Equilibrium with the Jigsaw Technique. Research in Science Education, 38: 249-260
- Doymuş, K., Karaçöp, A., and Şimşek, Ü.(2010).Effects of jigsaw and animation techniques on students’understanding of concepts and subjects in electrochemistry, Educational Technology Research and Development, 58, 671-691
- Ebenezer, J.V. & Erickson, L.G. (1996). Chemistry students’ conception of solubility: A phenomenograpy. Science Education, 80(2), 181-201.
- Ghaith,G. And A.R. Bouzeineddine(2003).Relationship between reading attitudes, achievement and learners’
- perceptions of their Jigsaw II Cooperative learning experiences,Reading Psychool,24(1):105-12
- Haidar, A.H., & Abraham, M.R. (1991). A comparison of applied and theoretical knowledge of concepts based on the particulate nature of matter. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 28, 919-938
- Haller, R.C ., Gallagher, V.J ., Weldon,T.L., Felder, R.M., 2000. Dynamics of peer interactions in cooperative learning. Journal Engineering Education, 89(3), 285-293
- Johnson.,B.&Christensen,L.(2004) Educational Research,Quantitative,Qualitative and mixed Approaches, second edition,Pearson,U.S.A
- Johnson, David W., Johnson, Roger T., and Smith, Karl A. (1991). Active learning: Cooperation in the college classroom. Edina, MN: Interaction Book Company.
- Kozma, R.B., Chin, E., Russell, J., & Marx, N. (2000). The roles of representations and tools in the chemistry laboratory and their implications for chemistry instruction. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 9(2), 105 ± 143.
- Mattingly,R.M and R.L,Van Sickle (1991).Cooperative Learning and achievement in social studies:Jigsaw II.Social Psychol.,128(1):345-352
- Pfundt, H., & Duit, R. (1991). Students’ alternative frameworks and science education ,Bibliography. Kiel, Germany : Institute for Science Education
- Prince, M. (2004). Does active learning work? A review of the research. Journal of Engineering c Education, 93(3), 223-231.
- Robson, C.(1998) Real Word Research, Blackwell Publishers Ltd. Oxford, UK
- Sharan, S. (2002). Differentiating methods of cooperative learning in research and practice. Asia Pacific Journal of Education, 22(1), 106 - 116.
- Slavin, R. E. (1980). Cooperative learning. Review of Educational Research, 50(2), 315-342.
- Staver, J.R. & Lumpe, A.T. (1995). Two investigations of students understanding of the mole concept and its use in problem solving. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 32(2),177-193.
- Şahin, A. (2010). Effects of jigsaw II technique on academic achievement and attitudes to written expression course, Educational Research and Reviews, 5(12), 777-787
Comparison of Metalinguistic Development in Sequential Bilinguals and Monolinguals
Manuscript Views: 119 | Manuscript Download: 124
The purpose of this study was to compare metalinguistic skills (word awareness and phonological awareness) of a Turkish English sequential bilingual child and a monolingual Turkish child. The participants were two 8-year-old second grade students. Performances of the two participants compared on a set of three tasks related with word awareness and three tasks related with phonological awareness. The results for the word awareness tasks concluded that Turkish English bilingual child outperformed the Turkish monolingual child in the word segmentation task and the symbol substitution task but they both performed equally well in the word definition task. The results for the phonological tasks including the rhyming task, the final phoneme deletion task and phoneme blending tasks revealed no bilingual advantage. The results were discussed in terms of a limit on the effect that bilingualism exerts on metalinguistic development.
Keywords: metalinguistic development, phonological awareness, word awareness, sequential bilingual, monolingual
- Bassetti, B. (2005). Effects of writing systems on second language awareness: Word in English learners of Chinese as a Foreign Language. In: V. J. Cook, and B. Bassetti, (eds). Second Language Writing Systems. (pp. 335-356) Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.
- Ben-Zeev, S. (1977). The influence of bilingualism on cognitive strategy and cognitive development. Child Development, 48, 1009–1018.
- Bialystok, E. (1986). Children’s concept of word. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 15(1), 13-32.
- Bialystok, E. (1988). Levels of bilingualism and levels of linguistic awareness. Developmental Psychology, 24, 560–567.
- Bialystok, E. (1991). Letters, sounds, and symbols: Changes in children’s understanding of written language. Applied Psycholinguistics, 12, 75–89.
- Bialystok, E. (1997). Effects of bilingualism and biliteracy on children’s emerging concepts of print. Developmental Psychology, 33, 429–440.
- Bialystok, E. (2001). Bilingualism in Development: Language, Literacy, and Cognition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Bialystok, E., & Ryan, E. B. (1985). Metacognitive framework for the development of first and second language skills. In D. L. Forrest-Pressley, G. E. MacKinnon, & T. G. Waller (Eds.), Metacognition, cognition and human performance (pp. 207–252). New York: Academic Press.
- Bialystok, E., Majumder, S. & Martin, M. (2003). Developing Phonological Awareness: Is There a Bilingual Advantage? Applied Psycholinguistic, 24, 27-44.
- Bowey, J. A. (1988). Metalinguistic functioning in children. Geelong, Australia: Deakin University Press.
- Bruck, M., & Genesee, F. (1995). Phonological awareness in young second language learners. Journal of Child Language, 22, 307–324.
- Campbell, R., & Sais, E. (1995). Accelerated metalinguistic (phonological) awareness in bilingual children. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 13, 61–68.
- Carlisle, J. F., Beeman, M. M., Davis, L. H., & Spharim, G. (1999). Relationship of metalinguistic capabilities and reading achievement for children who are becoming bilingual. Applied Psycholinguistics, 20, 459-478.
- Clark, E. V. (1978). Awareness of language: Some evidence from what children say and do. In A.
- Sinclair, R. J. Jarvella, & W. J. M. Levelt (Eds.), The child’s conception of language (pp. 17- 43). Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
- Cromdal, J., (1999). Childhood bilingualism and metalinguistic skills: Analysis and control in young Swedish–English bilinguals. Applied Psycholinguistics 20, 1-20.
- Cummins, J. (1978). Bilingualism and the development of metalinguistic awareness. Journal of CrossCultural Psychology, 9, 131–149.
- Edwards, D., & Christopherson, H. (1988). Bilingualism, literacy, and metalinguistic awareness in preschool children. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 6, 235–244.
- Galambos, S.J., & Goldin-Meadow, S. (1990). The effects of learning two languages on levels of metalinguistic awareness. Cognition, 34, 1–56.
- Goldsworthy, C. (1996). Developmental reading disabilities: A Language-based treatment approach. San Diego, CA: Singular Publishing.
- Hakuta, K. (1986). Mirror of language: The debate on bilingualism. New York: Basic Books.
- Ianco-Worrall, A. (1972). Bilingualism and cognitive development. Child Development, 43, 1390-1400.
- Karakelle, S., (1998). Cognitive factors affecting prereading skill acquisition. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, Hacettepe University, Ankara.
- Lane, H. B., Pullen, P. C., Eisele, M. R., & Jordan, L. (2002). Preventing reading failure: Phonological awareness assessment and instruction. Preventing School Failure, 46 (3), 101-110.
- Ricciardelli, L. A. (1992). Bilingualism and cognitive development in relation to threshold theory. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 21, 301–316.
- Roth, F.P., Speece, D.L., Cooper, D.H., & de la Paz, S. (1996). Unresolved mysteries: How do metalinguistic and narrative skills connect with early reading? The Journal of Special Education, 30(3), 257–277.
- Rubin, H., & Turner, A. (1989). Linguistic awareness skills in grade one children in a French immersion setting. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 1, 73–86.
- Smith, C.L., & Tager-Flusberg, H. (1982). Metalinguistic awareness and language development. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 34, 449–468.
- Snow, C. E. (1990). The development of definitional skill. Journal of Child Language, 17, 697–710.
- Snow, C. E., Cancino, H., De Temple, J., & Schley, S. (1991). Giving formal definitions: A linguistic
- or metalinguistic skills? In E. Bialystok (Ed.), Language processing in bilingual children (pp. 90–112). New York: Cambridge University Press.
- Tunmer, W. E., Herriman, M. L., & Nesdale, A. R. (1988). Metalinguistic abilities and beginning reading. Reading Research Quarterly, 23, 134–155.
- Verhallen, M., and Schoonen, R., (1993). Word definitions of monolingual and bilingual children. Applied Linguistics, 14, 344-65
- Vygotsky, L.S. (1962). Thought and language. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
- Watson, R., & Olson, D. R. (1987). From meaning to definition: A literate bias in the structure of word meaning. In H. Horwitz & S. J. Samuels (Eds.), Comprehending oral and written language (pp. 329–353). San Diego: Academic.
- Yelland, G.W., Pollard, J., & Mercuri, A. (1993). The metalinguistic benefits of limited contact with a second language. Applied Psycholinguistics, 14, 423– 444.
An Analysis on Motivational Beliefs of Preparatory Class Students about Learning English
Nihal YURTSEVEN, Sertel ALTUN & Hasan AYDIN
Manuscript Views: 101 | Manuscript Download: 112
The purpose of this study is to analyze the motivational beliefs of preparatory class students to learn English. The research was carried out utilizing a mixed method where quantitative and qualitative data were used together. The sample chosen purposively consists of 211 students attending the School of Foreign Languages at Yıldız Technical University. As a quantitative data collection tool, the motivational beliefs dimension of “Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ)” was used. Qualitative data were collected via two open-ended questions which were asked to have an insight about motivational beliefs of the students. Quantative data were analyzed via t-test and ANOVA statistics while qualitative data were analyzed through descriptive analysis. For quantitative results, the findings initially indicated that there was a significant difference in motivational beliefs between male and female students in favour of female students. Secondly, there was a significant difference in motivational beliefs associated with self-efficacy and test anxiety depending on English proficiency level of the students. Thirdly, the resource of motivation did not constitute a significant difference in motivational beliefs. Finally, qualitative findings revealed that an enjoyable learning atmosphere motivated the students to learn English.
Keywords: Learning English, motivational beliefs, learning environment, self-efficacy, anxiety.
- Asan, R. N., Nair, N. R. & Iyyapan S. (2008). Some factors affecting English learning at tertiary level. Iranian Journal of Language Studies, 2(4), 485-512.
- Altun, S. & Erden, M. (2006). Öğrenmede motive edici stratejiler ölçeğinin geçerlik ve güvenirlik çalışması. Yeditepe Üniversitesi Edu7, 2(1),1-16.
- Aydın, S. & Zengin, B. (2008). Yabancı dil öğreniminde kaygı: Bir literatür özeti. Journal of Language and Linguistic Studies. 4(1), 81-94.
- Bain, S. K., McCallum, R. S., Bell S. M., Cochran, J. L. & Sawyer, S. C. (2010). Foreign language learning aptitudes, attitudes, attributions, and achievement of postsecondary students identified as gifted. Journal of AdvancedAcademics, 22, 130-156.
- Balcı, A. (2009) Sosyal bilimlerde araştırma: Yöntem, teknik ve ilkeler. Ankara: Pegem A Yayıncılık.
- Balçıkanlı, C. (2008). Fostering learner autonomy in EFL classrooms. Kastamonu Eğitim Dergisi. 16(1), 277¬284.
- Bektaş, Y. (2007). Turkish students’ willingness to communicate in English. Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesi Buca Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 21, 115-123.
- Boekaerts, M., (2002). Motivation to learn. EducationalPractices Series. 10 (1), 1-27.
- Carreira, J. M. (2011). Relationship between motivation for learning EFL and intrinsic motivation for learning in general among Japanese elementary school students. System: An International Journal of Educational Technology and Applied Linguistics, 39, 90-102.
- Carreira, J. M. (2012). Motivational orienations and psychological needs in EFL learning among elementary school students in Japan. System: An International Journal of Educational Technology and Applied Linguistics, 40 (2), 191-202.
- Chen, H.-Y. (2007). The relationship between EFL learners’ self-efficacy beliefs and english performance. (Doktora Tezi). Access adress: http://etd.lib.fsu.edu/theses/available/etd-11132007-162400/
- Creswell, J. W. (2012). Educational research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research. USA: Pearson Education, Inc.
- Csizer, K. & Dörnyei, Z. (2005). Language learners’ motivational profiles and their motivated learning behavior. Language Learning, 55(4), 613-659.
- Çubukçu, F. (2008). A study on the correlation between self efficacy and foreign language leaming anxiety. Journal of Theory andPractice in Education, 4(1), 148-158.
- Deci. E. L. & Ryan, R. M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behaviour. New York: Plenum.
- Deci. E. L. & Ryan, R. M. (2000). The "what" and "why" of goal pursuits: Human needs and the self- determination of behavior. PsychologicalInquiry, 11(4), 227-268.
- Deci. E. L. & Ryan, R. M. (2008). Facilitating optimal motivation and psychological well-being across life's domains. Canadian Psychology, 49 (1), 14-23.
- Demir, A. (20.10.2012). Ülkemizde yabancı dil öğretimi/öğrenimi sorunu ve bazı öneriler
- Access adres: http://www.egitimsen.org.tr/ekler/210646bf95f8247410cd553f4d1935f_ek.pdf.
- Dörnyei, Z. (2003). Attitudes, orientations, and motivations in language learning: Advances in theory, research, and applications. Language Learning, 53(1), 3-32.
- Gardner, R. C. (2006). The socio-educational model of second language acquisition: A research paradigm. EUROSLA Yearbook, 6(1), 237-260.
- George, D., & Mallery, P. (2003). SPSSfor Windows step by step: A simple guide and reference. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
- Gobel, P. & Mori, S. (2007). Success and failure in the EFL classroom: Exploring students’ attributional beliefs in language learning. EUROSLA Yearbook, 7 (1), 49-69.
- Guba, E. G. & Lincoln, Y. S. (1994). Competing paradigms in qualitative research. In Denzin, N. K. & Lincoln, Y. S. (Eds.), Handbook of qualitative research (pp. 105-117). London: Sage.
- Hsieh, P.-H. (2008). Why are college foreign language students' self-efficacy, attitude, and motivation so different? International Education, 3#(1), 76-94.
- Hsieh, P.-H. & Kang, H-S. (2010). Attribution and self-efficacy and their interrelationship in the Korean EFL context. Language Learning: A Journal of Research in Language Studies, 60 (3), 606-627.
- Huang, K-M. (2011). Motivating lessons: A classroom-oriented investigation of the effects of content-based instruction on EFL young learners’ motivated behaviours and classroom verbal interaction. Elsevier Science: System,39 (2), 186-201.
- Huang, S.-C. (2008). Assessing motivation and learning strategies using the motivated strategies for learning questionnaire in a foreign language learning context. Social Behavior andPersonality, 36(4), 529-534.
- Işık, A. (2008). Yabancı dil eğitimimizdeki yanlışlar nereden kaynaklanıyor? Journal of Language and Linguistic Studies, 4(2), 15-26.
- Javid, C. Z., Al-Asmari, A. R. & Farooq, U. (2012). Saudi undergraduates' motivational orientations towards English language learning along gender and university major lines: a comparative study. European Journal of Social Sciences, 27(2), 283-300.
- Karataş, H. (2011). Üniversite öğrencilerinin epistemolojik inançları, öğrenme yaklaşımları ve problem çözme becerilerinin akademik motivasyonu yordama gücü (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Yıldız Technical University, Turkey.
- Kassim, M. A., Hancock, D. R., Hanafi, S. R. M., & Omar, A. N. (2004). Recent research in student motivation. In Nata, R. (Ed.), Progress in Education (101-138). USA: Nova Science Publishers, Inc.
- Matsumoto, M. (2009, November). Second language learners' motivation and their perceptions of teachers' motivation. International conference on teaching and learning in higher education: Quality learning in higher education. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
- Mills, N., Pajares, F. & Herron C. (2007). Self-efficacy of college intermediate French students: Relation to achievement and motivation. Language Learning, 57(3), 417-442.
- Nikolov, M. (1999). 'Why do you learn English?' 'Because the teacher is short.' A study of Hungarian children's foreign language learning motivation. Language Teaching Research, 3 (1), 33-56.
- Noels, K. A., Pelletier, L. G., Clement, R. & Vallerand, R. J. (2003).Why are you learning a second language? Motivational orientations and self-determination theory. Language Learning, 53 (1), 33-63.
- Oral, Y. (2010). Türkiye’de yabancı dil eğitim politikaları bağlamında İngilizce: ‘Eleştirel bir çalışma’. Alternatif Eğitim E-Dergisi, 7(1), 59-68.
- Oxford, R. & Shearin, J. (1994). Language learning motivation: Expanding the theoretical framework. The Modern Language Journal, 78(1), 12-28.
- Paker, T. (2006). Çal Bölgesindeki Okullarda İngilizce Öğretiminin Sorunları ve Çözüm Önerileri. Çal Sempozyumu, 1-3 Eylül 2006. Denizli: Pamukkale Üniversitesi. Access adres:
- tpaker.pamukkale.edu.tr/articles/Çal%20Sempozyumu.doc [20.10.2012].
- Pajares, F. (2003). Self-efficacy beliefs, motivation, and achievement in writing: A review of the literature. Reading & Writing Quarterly, 19, 139-158. DOI: 10.1080/10573560390143085.
- Pickens, M. T. (2007). Teacher and student perspectives on motivation within the high school science classroom (unpublished doctoral dissertation). Auburn University, USA
- Pintrich, P. R. (2000). The role of goal orientation in self-regulated learning. In Boekaerts, M., Pintrich P. R., Zeidner M. (Eds.), Handbook of self regulation (451-502). USA: Academic Press.
- Pintrich, P. & De Groot E.V. (1990). Motivational and Self-Regulated Learning Components of Classroom Academic Performance. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82(1), 33-50.
- Pintrich, P. R. & Schunk, D. H. (2002). Motivation in education: Theory, research and applications. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Merrill.
- Pintrich, P. R., Smith, D., Garcia, T. & McKeachie, W. J. (1991). A manual for the use of the motivated strategies for learning questionnaire (MSQL). National Center for Research to Improve Postsecondary Teaching and Learning, 1(1), 10- 28.
- Qu, W.-J. (2009). Stimulating foreign language learning motivation-from the perspective of cognition and meta-cognition. US-China Foreign Language, 7 (10), 34-38.
- Ryan, R. M. & Deci, E. L. (2000). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations: Classic defnitions and new directions. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25(1), 54-67.
- Sapir, E. (2007). Language: An introduction to the study of speech. USA: Biblio Bazaar.
- Schunk, D. H. & Ertmer, P. A. (2000). Self-regulation and academic leaming: Self-efficacy enhancing interventions. In Boekaerts, M., Pintrich P. R., Zeidner M. (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation (631 - 649). USA: Academic Press.
- Soner, O. (2007). Türkiye’de Yabancı Dil Eğitiminin Dünü Bugünü. Marmara Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, 7(28), 397-404.
- Şahinkarakaş, Ş. (2011). Young students’ success and failure attributions in language learning. Social Behavior andPersonality, 39 (7), 879-886.
- Tse, L. (2000). Student perceptions of foreign language study: A qualitative analysis of foreign language autobiographies. The Modern Language Journal, 84 (1), 69-84.
- Wang, J.-K. (2008). Stimulating students’ motivation in foreign language teaching. US-China Foreign Language, 6(1), 30-34.
- Wen-jie, Q. (2009). Stimulating foreign language learning motivation-from the perspective of cognition and meta-cognition. US-China Foreign Language, 7 (10): 34-38.
- Williams, M. & Burden, R.L. (1997). Psychology for language teachers: A social constructivist approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Yurtseven, N. (2010). Mentorluk hizmetinin Yabancı Diller Yüksekokulu’nda okuyan öğrencilerin akademik başarıları, öz yeterlik algıları ve kaynakları yönetme stratejileri üzerindeki etkisi (Yayımlanmamış yüksek lisans tezi). Yıldız Teknik Üniversitesi, Türkiye.
- Yıldırım, A. & Şimşek, H. (2008). Sosyal bilimlerde nitel araştırma yöntemleri. Ankara: Seçkin Yayıncılık.
- Yıldız Technical University School of Foreign Languages Archive. English Proficiency Exam Records. [14.10.2012].
- Zimmerman, B. J. (2000). Attaining self-regulation: A social cognitive perspective. In Boekaerts, M., Pintrich P. R., Zeidner, M. (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation (13-39). ABD: Academic Press.
Professional Development Journey Through Action Research: A Case of A Primary School Teacher In An EFL Context
Saadet KORUCU KIS
Manuscript Views: 68 | Manuscript Download: 97
Although action research enables teachers to take responsibility of their own professional development, teachers ascribe the role of researcher only to experts outside the classroom. Drawing on qualitative analysis of a teacher of English’s reflection journal and interviews as well as quantitative analysis of examinations taken by students, this study examines how action research can affect the teacher in terms of content knowledge, teaching practices, and beliefs and attitudes. The results suggest the popularization of action research among teachers by teacher training and development units showing the positive changes in the teacher’s performance leading to improved student learning.
Keywords: Action research, professional development, teacher of English
- Benton, J., & Wasko, J. (2000). Anything worthwhile takes time: Eight schools discuss impacts and impressions of doing action research. Retrieved October 10, 2010 from
- Bingimlas, K. & Hanrahan, M. (2010). The relationship between teachers’ beliefs and their practice: How the literature can inform science education reformers and researchers. In M. F. Taşar & G. Çakmakçı (Eds.). Contemporary Science Education Research: International Perspectives (pp.415-422). Ankara: Pegem Akademi.
- Burns, A. (1999). Collaborative action research for English language teachers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Burns, A. (2000). Action Research and Applied Research: What are the relationships. Retrieved December 23, 2010, from http://language.hvper.chubu.actionresearch.ip/ialt/pub/tlt/Q0/iul/burns.html
- Burns, A. (2010). Doing action research for English language teachers. A guide for practitioners. New York: Routledge.
- Burns, A., & Rochsantiningsih, D. (2006). Conducting Action Research in Indonesia: Illustrations and Implications. Indonesian Journal of English Language Teaching, 2(1), 21-35.
- Cohen, L. & Manion, L. (1990). Research Methods in Education (3rd ed.). Routledge.
- Chou, C. (2010). Investigating the effects of incorporating collaborative action research into an in-service teacher training program. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2(2), 2728-2734. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1877042810004441
- Donaghue, H. (2003). An instrument to elicit teachers’ beliefs and assumptions. ELT Journal, 57(4), 344-351.
- Elliott, J. (1991). Action research for educational change. Philadelphia: Open University Press.
- Farrell, T. S. C. (2004). Reflectivepractice in action. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
- Ferrance, E. (2000). Themes in Education: Action Research. Retrieved September 23, 2009 from www.alliance.brown.edu/pubs/themes ed/act research.pdf. Accessed on 2009/09/23
- Finocchiaro, M. (1988). A Teacher Development: "Continuing Process". English Teaching Forum , 26 (3), 2-5.
- Freeman, D. (1998). Doing Teacher Research: From Inquiry to Understanding. Boston: Heinle and Heinle
- Goodson, I. F. (1992). Studying teachers’ lives. London: Routledge.
- Guskey, Thomas. R. (2000). Evaluatingprofessional development. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
- Guskey, T. R (2002). Does It Make a Difference? Evaluating Professional Development. Educational Leadership, 59(6), 45-51.
- Hancock, R. (1997). Why are class teachers reluctant to become researchers? British Journal of In-service Education, 23(1), 85-99.
- Pinder, H. & Turnbull, M. (2003, September) Teacher professional development: a portfolio approach. Paper presented at the British Educational Research Association Annual Conference, Heriot Watt Universtiy, Edinburgh.
- Kemmis, S. & McTaggart, R. (1992). The action researchplanner (3rd ed.). Victoria:
- Deakin University Press.
- Kennedy, M. (1998). Form and substance in inservice teacher education (Research Monograph No. 13). Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin-Madison, National Institute of Science Education. Retrieved November 18, 2011, from http://tinyurl.com/6quidf
- Lytle, S., & Cochran-Smith, Marilyn. (April 1989). Teacher researcher: Toward classifying the concept. Retrieved December 20, 2012 from
- Mansour, N. (2008). Science teachers’ beliefs and practices: Issues, implications and research agenda. International Journal of Environmental & Science Education, 4(1), 25-48.Retrieved from http://www.iiese.com/IJESE v4n1 Mansour.pdf
- Marcelo, C. (2009). Professional Development of Teachers: past and future. Sisifo. Educational Sciences Journal, 8, 5-20 Retrieved from http://sisifo.fpce.ul.pt/pdfs/S8 ENG CarlosMarcelo%20(1).pdf
- McNiff, J. (1997). Action research: Principles and practice. Chatham, Kent: MacKays of Chatham.
- Miles, M. B. & Huberman, M. A. (1994). Qualitative data analysis (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
- Mills, G. (2007). Action research: A guide for the teacher researcher (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.
- Nunan, D. (n.d.) Empowering Teachers Through Classroom Research. Retrieved January 3, 2013 from http://www.culi.chula.ac.th/e-Journal/bod/David%20Nunan.pdf
- Nunan, D. (1992). Research methods in language learning. Cambridge University Press.
- Nunan, D. (2006). Action Research and Professional Growth. Paper presented at the The 1st JALT Joint Tokyo Conference: Action Research - Influencing Classroom Practice. Tokyo, Japan. Retrieved From: http://moodle.stoa.usp.br/file.php/1292/NUNAN actionResearchAndProfessionalGrowth ShantouNo
- O’Connor, K. A., Greene, H. C. & Anderson, P. J. (2006, April). Action Research: A Tool for Improving Teacher Quality and Classroom Practice. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (AERA), San Francisco.
- Özer, B. (2004). In-service training of teachers in Turkey at the beginning of the 2000s. Journal of In-service Education, 30, 89-100.
- Pajares, F. (1992). Teachers Beliefs and Educational Research: Cleaning Up a Messy Construct. Review of Educational Research, 62(3), 307-33.
- Polemeni, A. J. (1976). Research and teacher power. Educational Leadership, 33(7), 493-497.
- Ponte, P., Ax, J., Beijaard, D., & Wubbels, T. (2004). Teachers’ development of professional knowledge through action research and the facilitation of this by teachers educators. Teaching and Teacher Education. 20(6),571-588.
- Qing, X. (2009) Reflective Teaching- An Effective Path for EFL Teacher’s Professional Development. Canadian Social Science, 5(2). 35-40
- Richards, J. (1991). Towards reflective teaching. The teacher Trainer: A Practical Journal for those who Train, Mentor, andEducate TESOL teachers, 5 (3), 4-8. Retrieved from
- http://www.tttiournal.co.uk/uploads/File/back articles/Towards Reflective Teaching.pdf
- Richards, J. C. & Lockhart, C. (1994 ). Reflective teaching in Second Language Classrooms. New York: Cambridge University Press
- Richards, J. C. (1998). Beyond training: Perspectives on language teacher education. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Richards, J. C., & Farrell, T. S. C. (2005). Professional development for language teachers: strategies for teacher learning. New york: Cambridge University Press.
- Rokeach, Milton. (1968). Beliefs, attitudes, and values: A theory of organization and change. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
- Rudduck, J. (1987) Teacher Research, Action Research, Teacher Inquiry: What’s in a Name. In J. Rudduck., D. Hopkins, J. Sanger, & P. Lincoln, Collaborative Inquiry and Information Skills. British Library Research Paper 16, Boston Spa, British Library.
- Sax, C. & Fisher, D. (2001). Using qualitative action research to effect change: Implications for professional education. Teacher Education Quarterly, 28 (2), 71-80.
- Snider, V. E. & Roehl, R. (2007). Teachers’ beliefs about pedagogy and related issues. Psychology in the Schools, 44(8), 873-885
- Somekh, B. (1993). Quality in education research - the contribution of classroom teachers. In Edge, J. & Richards, K. (Eds.), Teachers Develop Teachers Research: Papers on Classroom Research and Teacher Development (pp.26-38). Oxford: Heinemann.
- Somekh, B. (1995). The Contribution of Action Research to Development in Social Endeavours: a position paper on action research methodology. British EducationalResearch Journal, 21(3), 339-355.
- Sparks, D. & LoucksHorsley, S. (1990). Models of Staff Development. In R. W. Houston, M. Haberman, J. P. Sikula & Association of Teacher Educators (Eds.), Handbook of Research on Teacher Education. (pp. 234-251). New York: McMillan Pub.
- Standen, R. P. (2002). The interplay between teachers' beliefs andpractices in a multi-age primary school. (Doctoral dissertation, Griffith University, Australia. Retrieved from http://www4.gu.edu.au:8080/adt- root/uploads/approved/adt-QGU20030730.102127/public/02Whole.pdf
- Twamley-Cooper, S. M. (2009). Action Research andIts Effects on Teacher Efficacy: A MixedMethods Case Study (Doctoral dissertation, Baylor University, Texas.
- Underhill, A. (1995). Self andPeer Assessment. London: Heinemann.
- Uysal, H. H. (2012). Evaluation of an In-service Training Program for Primary-school Language Teachers in Turkey, Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 37(7), 14-29.
- Wallace, M. (1998). Action research for language teachers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Wilson, S., Shulman M., Lee. S. & Richert, A. E. (1987). “150 different ways” of knowing: Representations of knowledge in teaching. In James Calderhead (Ed.), Exploring teachers’ thinking. (pp. 104-124) London: Cassell.
- Woods, D. 1996. Teacher Cognition in Language Learning. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Yoon, K., Park, Y., & Hong, S. Y. (April, 1999). Elementary teachers’ perceptions of action research in Korea. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Comparative and International Education Society, Toronto, Canada.
- Young, M. R., Rapp, E., & Murphy, J. W. (2010). Action research: Enhancing classroom practice and fulfilling educational responsibilities. Journal of Instructional Pedagogies, 3(1), 1-10.
- Zembylas, M. (2005). Beyond teacher cognition and teacher beliefs: The value of the ethnography of emotions in teaching. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, 18(4), 465-487.
A Research on the Effect of Career and Job Getting Perception on Learning Motivation and Career Development Efforts
Metin Atak, İlhan Atik & İbrahim Ceylan
Manuscript Views: 110 | Manuscript Download: 76
Learning motivation can be defined as learner’s perception of learning activities for meaningful and valuable, an effort for benefiting from them for himself. Studies executed on learning motivation show that a highly motivated student carries on his learning activities on account of pleasure he takes in a learning activity and learning facilities or the sense of achievement inspired. On the one hand, as for a lowly motivated student, he does his work for the sake of an award or avoidance of possible punishments. This situation has an impact on the success of teaching activity to a great extent. There are many factors that affect learning motivation which has such importance on teaching. Through removing the obstacles, educators and training directors strive for creating learning environment where learning motivation is considerably high. It has been revealed in many studies that personnel’s career expectations and their wish for having permanent positions contribute to their performing better in the organization, having high organizational commitment and tendency for not leaving their jobs. Accordingly, in the process of learning towards a job, the perception of both having had the occupation and career’s meeting the expectations related with the job draw attention as a variable influencing candidates’ learing motivation. The problem of this study is to determine the impact of students’ job getting and career perceptions on learning motivation and career development efforts. In this study, by confirming aeronautics undergraduates’ getting a job and their career perception together with the levels of their career development efforts and learning motivation perceptions, the correlation between them is examined. Accordng to study findings, it is concluded that career perception influence positively not only learning motivation but also career development effort, whereas job getting perception affects learning motivation positively, it has no effect on career development effort.
Keywords: Learning motivation, job getting perception, career perception, career development effort
- Adair, J. (2006). Etkili Motivasyon, Çev., Salih Uyan, Babıali Kültür Yayıncılık, 3. Baskı, İstanbul.
- Akbay, S. E. (2009). Cinsiyete göre Üniversite Öğrencilerinde Akademik Erteleme Davranışı: Akademik Güdülenme, Akademik Özyeterlilik ve Akademik Yükselme Stillerinin Rolü, Yayımlanmamış Yüksek Lisans Tezi,
- Demir, Z. (2008). Uzaktan Eğitim Öğrencilerinin Akademik Güdülenme Düzeyleri, Yayımlanmamış Yüksek Lisans Tezi.
- Baruch Y. ve E. Rosenstein. (1992). Human Resource Management İsraeli Firms: Planning and Managing Careers in High Tecghnology Organizations, 3(3), 477-495.
- Beach, Dale S. (1980). The Management of People at Work, Newyork: McMillan Publishing.
- Bozanoğlu, İ. (2004). Akademik Güdülenme Ölçeği: Geliştirilmesi, Geçerliliği, Güvenilirliği. Ankara Üniversitesi, Ankara Üniversitesi EğitimBilimleri Fakültesi Dergisi, 37 (2), 83-98.
- Clark, M.H. ve Schroth, C.A. (2010). “Examining Relationships Between Academic Motivation and Personality Among College Students”, Learning and Individual Differences, 20(1), 19-24.
- Deci, E.L. veRyan, R. M. (2008). “Facilitating Optimal Motivationand Psychological Well- Being Across Life’s Domains”, Canadian Psychology, 49(1), 14-23.
- Hair, J., R., Anderson, R., Tahtam and William, Black. (1998). Multivariate Data Analysis With Readings, 5th Edition, Prentice-Hallİnternational.
- Israel, G. D. (2003). Determining Sample Size, IFAS Extension, Universty of Florida,http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu.
- Leech, N., L., Barrett, K., C., Morgan, G., A. (2005). SPSS for Intermediate Statistics; Use and Interpretation, Second Edition, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers Mahwah, New Jersey London.
- Noe, R A. (2009). İnsan Kaynaklarının Eğitimi ve Geliştirilmesi, Çev: Canan Çetin, 4. Baskı, Beta Yayınları.
The Relationship between Internet Addiction, Peer Pressure and Perceived Social Support among Adolescents
Binnaz Kıran Esen & Mehmet Gündoğdu
Manuscript Views: 163 | Manuscript Download: 65
The aim of the present research was to investigate the relationships between internet addiction, peer pressure and social support among adolescents. The sample of the study consisted of 558 adolescents (290 female 268 male) selected from high school 9th and 10th grade at Mersin. The data related with the internet addiction was gathered by means of Internet Addiction Questionnaire developed by Young (1998) and adapted to Turkish culture by Bayraktar (2001). The data related with the peer pressure gathered with the peer Pressure Questionnaire developed by Kıran (2002) and Perceived Social Support Measure developed by Yıldırım (1997) was used to measure the social support. To examine the relationships between internet addiction, peer pressure and social support, gender X peer pressure (low-medium- high), gender X peer support (low-medium-high), gender X parental support (low-medium- high) and gender X teachers’ support (low-medium-high) design four different analyses of variance was applied to the Internet Addiction Questionnaire scores of the adolescents. For low, medium and high peer pressure, peer support, parental support and teachers’ support, 0,5 standard deviation was used as cut off point. The results showed that the lower the peer pressure, internet addiction decreases. Moreover, the more the parental and teachers’ support increase, internet addiction scores of the adolescents decrease. Furthermore, it was observed that internet addiction scores of the adolescents differed according to gender, and the internet addiction scores of the girls were lower than that of boys. Otherwise, no relationship was observed between internet addiction and peer support. The results were discussed in the light of related literature.
Keywords: Internet addiction, Peer Pressure, Perceived Social Support, Adolescents
- Barber, J. G., Bolitho, F. & Bertrand, L. D. (1999). The predictors of adolescent smoking, Journal of Social Service Research, 26(1), 51-66
- Bayraktar, F. (2001). İnternet kullanımının ergen gelişimindeki rolü, Yüksek lisans tezi, Ege Üniversitesi, İzmir.
- Beard, K. W. (2002). Internet Addiction: Current status and implications for employees. Journal of Employment Counseling, 1, 2-11
- Brian, D. NG. & Wiemer-Hastings, P. (2005). Addiction to the internet and online gaming, CyberPsychology and Behavior, 8 (2), 110-119
- Campbell, A. J., Cumming, S. R. & Hughes, I. (2006). Internet use by the socially fearful: addiction or therapy? CyberPsychology and Behavior, 9 (1), 69-75
- Coyne, J.C. & Downey G (1991) Social factors and psychopathology: stress, social support, and coping processes. Annual Review Psychology, 42:401-425.
- Dishion, T. J. & Skaggs, N. M. (2000). An ecological analysis of monthly ‘bursts’ in early adolescent substance use, Applied Developmental Science, 4 (2), 89- 97
- Eamon, M.K. & Cray, M. (2005). Behavior among Latino young adolescents: An ecological systems analysis predicting antisocial American, American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 75(1), 117-127
- Eker, D., Arkar, H. & Yaldız, H. (2001) Çok boyutlu algılanan sosyal destek ölçeği’nin gözden geçirilmiş formunun faktör yapısı, geçerlik ve güvenirliği, Türk Psikiyatri Dergisi, 12(1): 17¬25
- Ell K. (1996) Social networks, social support and coping with serious illness: The family connection. Social Science Med, 42: 173-183.
- Engelberg, E. & Sjöberg, L. (2004). Internet use, social skills, and adjustment, CyberPsychology and Behavior, 7 (1), 41-50
- Ferris, J. R. (2003) Internet Addiction Disorder: Cause, Symptoms, and Consequences. November 20, 2003, cited from: http://www.rider.edu/~suler/psvcvber/cvbaddict.html.
- Harman, J. P., Hansen, C. E., Cochran, M. E. & Lindsey, C. R. (2005). Liar, Liar: Internet faking but frequency of use affects social skills, self-esteem, social anxiety and aggression. CyberPsychology and Behavior, 8 (1), 1-6
- Helsen, M., W. Vollebergh. W. & Meeus. W. (2000). Social support from parents and peers and emotional problems in adolescence, Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 29 (3), 19-335
- Hupcey JE (1998) Social support: Assessing conceptual coherence. Quality Health Research, 8:304- 318.
- Hyung Hur, M. (2006). Demographic, habitual, and socioeconomic determinants of internet addiction disorder: An empirical study of Korean teenagers, CyberPsychology and Behavior, 9 (5), 514¬525
- Kıran-Esen, B. (2003) “Ergenlerin akran baskısı düzeylerine ve cinsiyetlerine göre sigara içme davranışlarının incelenmesi. Kuram ve Uygulamada Eğitim Bilimleri, 3(1), 179-188
- Kıran-Esen, B. (2003) Akran Baskısı Ölçeği’nin geliştirilmesi: geçerlik ve güvenirlik çalışması, Eğitim Bilimleri ve Uygulama, 2 (3), 65-79.
- Kıran-Esen, B. (2009) Adolescents’ internet addiction is predicted by peer pressure and perceived social support, NEWWSA, 4 (4), 1331-1340
- Kirallo, L. V. (2005). Internet addiction disorder: A descriptive study of college counselors in four year institutions, Doktora tezi, La Verne University, California, USA.
- Kummervold, P. E., Gammon, D., Bergvik, S., Johnsen, J. K., Hasvold, T. & Rosenvinge, J. H. (2002). Social support in wired world: use of online mental health forums in Norway, Nord J Psychiatry, 56, 59-65.
- Mesch, G. S. (2001). Social relationships and internet use among adolescents in Israel, Social Science Quarterly, 82 (2)
- Morahan-Martin, J. (1997). Incidence and correlates of pathological internet use. Paper presented at the 105th annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, August 18, 1997. Chicago, IL.
- Morgan, C. & Cotten, S. R. (2003). The relationship between internet activities and depressive symptoms in a sample of college freshmen, CyberPsychology and Behavior, 6 (2), 133-142
- Nalwa, K. & Anand, A. (2003). Internet addiction in students: A cause of concern, CyberPsychology and Behavior, 6 (6)
- Nichols, L. A. & Nicki, R. (2004). Development of psychometrically sound internet addiction scale: A preliminary step, Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 18 (4), 381-384.
- Niemz, K. Griffiths, M. & Banyard, P. (2005). Prevalence of Pathological internet use among university students & correlation with self-esteem, the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), and disinhibition, CyberPsychology and Behavior, 8(6), 562-574
- Odabaşıoğlu, G. et al. (2006). İnternet bağımlılığı kaç yaşında başlar?: Sıra dışı bir vaka üzerinden çocuk ve ergenlerde internet bağımlılığı, 3. Ulusal Bağımlılık Kongresi Bilimsel Çalışmalar Kitabı, 56
- Odabaşıoğlu, G., Öztürk, Ö., Genç, Y. & Pektaş, Ö. (2007). On olguluk bir seri ile internet bağımlılığı klinik görünümleri, Bağımlılık Dergisi, 8 (1), 46-51
- Razzino, B. E., Ribordy, S. C., Grant, K., Ferrari, J. R., Bowden, B. S. & Zeisz, J. (2004). Gender related processes and drug use: Self- expression with parents, peer group selection, and achievement motivation, Adolescence, 39 (153)
- RESOURCE GUİDE., (1996). Values, influences and peers. Revised Edition, 16, 05.02. 2001 cited from www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/document/resource/up.html.
- S&ers, C., Field, T. F., Diego, M. & Kaplan, M. (2000). The Relationship of internet use to depression and social isolation among adolescents. Adolescence, 35 (138), 237-242
- Santor, D. A., D. Messervey, A.D. & Kusumakar, V. (2000). Measuring peer pressure, popularity, and conformity in adolescent boys and girls: predicting school performance, sexual attitudes, and substance abuse, Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 29 (2), 163-182.
- Shilts, L.(1991). The relationship of early adolescent substance use to extracurricular activities, peer influence, and personal attitudes, Adolescence, 26 (103), 613-617.
- Simon-Morton, B. et al. (2001). Peer & parent influences on smoking and drinking among early adolescents, Health Education and Behavior, 28 (1), 95-113.
- Simkova, B. & Cincera, J. (2004). Internet addiction disorder and chatting in the Czech Republic, CyberPsychology and Behavior, 7 (5).
- Tsai, C.-C. & Lin, S. S. J. (2003). Internet addiction disorder and chatting in the Czech Republic, CyberPsychology and Behavior, 6 (6).
- Uchino B.N., Cacippo J.T. & Kiecolt-Glaser J. K. (1996) The relationship between social support and physiological processes: A review with emphasis on underlying mechanisms and implications for health. Psychology Bulletin, 119:488-531.
- Whang, L. S-M., Lee, S. & Chang, G. (2003). Internet over-users’ psychological profiles: A behavior sampling Analysis on internet addiction, CyberPsychology and Behavior, 6 (2), 143- 152
- Weiser, E. B. (2001). The functions of internet use and their social and psychological consequences, CyberPsychology and Behavior, 4 (6), 723- 731
- Yıldırım, İ. (2004). Algılanan Sosyal Destek Ölçeği’nin revizyonu, Eğitim Araştırmaları Dergisi, 5 (17), 221-236.
- Young, K. S. (1996). Internet addiction: The emergence of a new clinical disorder. CyberPsychology and Behavior, Vol. 1 No. 3, pp. 237-244.
- Young, K. S. (1997). What makes the internet addictive: Potential explanations for Pathological Internet Use, University of Pittsburgh at Bradford, Paper presented at the 105th annual conference of the American Psychological Association, August 15, Chicago, IL.
- Young, S. K, & Rodgers, R. C. (1998). Internet Addiction: Personality Traits Associated with Its Development, CyberPsychology and Behavior, 1(1), 25-28.
Safety and Risk: Benefits of Outdoor Play For Child Education
Manuscript Views: 90 | Manuscript Download: 60
A consideration of the theoretical frameworks of outdoor play between different scholars who emphasised different approaches and points of emphasis to outdoor play reveals a common pattern of consensus as regards the benefits of outdoor play to childhood education, health and development. From Froebel to Smilansky, the variation in points of emphasis between the different theorists does not seem to deter or inhibit the fundamental message of the profound role of outdoor play in childhood education and development. Although play is generally seen in its beneficial values, an added dimension is also given to the ‘green’ aspects of play which finds a suiting echo in outdoor play. The context of the risk involved in outdoor play in the UK therefore leads us into a consideration of safety and risk within the context of outdoor play in the UK.
Keywords: risk, safety, outdoor play, child education
- Ball, D. (2007) ‘Risk and the Demise of Children’s Play’ in Thom B. et al. (eds), (2007) Growing Up with Risk, Bristol, Polity Press, 57-76
- Ball, D., Gill, T.& Spiegal, B. (2008) Managing Risk in Play Provision: Implementation Guide. London: Department for Children, School and Families.
- Boyer, T. W. (2006). The Development of Risk-taking: A multi-perspective review. Developmental Review, 26, 291-345.
- British Toys and Hobbies Association (BTHA) (2011) A World Without Play: A Literature Review, London, Play England
- Burdette, H.L. & Whitaker R.C. (2005) ‘A National Study of Neighbourhood Safety, Outdoor Play, Television Viewing and Obesity in Preschool Children’ 116(3) Pediatrics 657¬662
- Burnett, A. (1962) ‘The Montessori Education Today and Yesterday’ 63(2) The Elementary School Journal 71-77
- Casey, T. (2003) Grounds for Learning, Sportsscotland and Play Scotland: School Grounds
- Literature Review, Phase One of the Scottish Schools Ground Research Project
- Faryadi, Q. (2007) The Montessori Paradigm of Learning: So What? Malaysia, UiTM
- Fleurot, M. (ed) (2008) Growing Up Outdoors, Sheffield, Countryside Recreation Network
- Freeman, C. (1995) Planning and Play: Creating greener environments. In Children's Environments.12(3),164-176
- Gill, T. (2007) Growing Up in a Risk Averse Society, London, Calouste Gulbankian Foundation
- Gleave, J. (2008) Risk and Play: A Literature Review, Give us a Go
- Gutteridge, S. (2008) ‘Making Good Places for Playing’ 27 Play Wales
- Hughes, B. (2003) Play Deprivation, Play Wales briefing paper
- Kaarby, K. M. E. (2004). Children Playing in Nature. Paper presented at the 1st CECDE International conference: Questions of Quality, Dublin Castle, Ireland, 23rd-25 September 2004.
- Little, H. (2009) Finding the Balance: Early Childhood Practitioner’s View on Risk, Challenge and Safety in Outdoor Play Settings [online] available at www.aare.edu.au/10pap/2420Little.pdf viewed 09 February 2012
- Ludvigsen, A., Creegan, C. and Mills, H. (2005) Lets Play Together: Play and inclusion evaluation of better play round three, Barnardo’s
- Madge, N. & Barker, J. (2007). Risk & Childhood. London: The Royal Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures & Commerce
- Manwaring, B. & Taylor, C. (2006) The Benefits of Play andPlaywork, London, CYWU
- Maudsley, M. & Lester, S. (2007) Play, Naturally: A Review of Children’s Natural Play, London, National Children’s Bureau
- Morrongiello, B.A. (2005) ‘Caregiver Supervision and Child-Injury Risk: I. Issues in Defining and Measuring Supervision; II. Findings and Directions for Future Research’ 30(7) Journal of Pediatric Psychology 536-552
- Munoz, S. (2009) Children in Outdoors: A Literature Review, Scotland, Sustainable Development Research Centre
- Norfolk County Council (2009) ‘Early Years Outdoor Learning: A Toolkit for Developing Early Years Outdoor Provision ’. [online]. Available at www.norfolk.gov.uk/outdoorlearning viewed 3 February 2012-03-08
- Osmond, J. & Morris, N. (2009) What are We Doing to Our Kids? Institute of Welsh Affairs
- Royal Society for the Prevention of Accidents (RoSPA) 2007 Rewiew 06:07, Birmingham.
- Sandseter, E.B.H. (2007) ‘Categorising Risky Play- How can we Identify Risk-Taking in Children’s Play?’ 15(2) European Early ChildhoodEducation Research Journal 237¬252
- Thom, B. et al., (eds) (2007) Growing Up with Risk, Bristol, Polity Press
- Thomas, G. & Thompson, J. (2004) A Child’s Place: why environment matters to children, (London: Green Alliance\Demos) http://www.demos.co.uk/files/AChildsPlace.pdf
- Thompson, J. & Philo, C. (2004) Playful Spaces? A social geography of children's play in livingston.2 (1) Scotland. In Children's Geographies, 111-130
- UNCRC (1989) United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child www.un.org
- UNICEF (2007) ‘Child Poverty in Perspective: An Overview of Child Wellbeing in Rich Countries’ Innocenti Report Card 7, (eds) Adamson, P. 52, Florence, Innocenti Research Centre
- Valentine, G. (1996) Children should be seen and not heard. In Urban Geography, 17 (3), 205-220
- Valentine, G. & McKendrick, J. (1997) ‘Children’s Outdoor Play: Exploring Parental Concern about Children’s Safety and the Changing Nature of Childhood’ 28(2) Geoforum 219-235
- Verenikina, I. et al., (2003)’Children’s Play: Computer Games, Theories of Play and Children’s Development’ Young Children and Learning Technologies UWS Parramatta, Australian Computer Society
- Waters, J. & Begley, S. (2007) ‘Supporting the Development of Risk-Taking Behaviours in the Early Years: An Exploratory Study’ 35(4) Education3-13 365-377.
Vocabulary Learning Strategy Preferences and Vocabulary Size of Pre-service English Teachers
Manuscript Views: 57 | Manuscript Download: 59
The present study examined the vocabulary learning strategy preferences and vocabulary size of pre-service English teachers at a state university in Turkey. It also investigated the relationship between their strategy use and vocabulary size. To this end, 304 pre-service teachers constituted the working group of the research. In this study, a quantitative research design was employed. For data collection, an adapted version of the Vocabulary Learning Strategy Inventory and Vocabulary Levels Test were used. The most frequently used vocabulary learning strategy sub-group was found to be determination and the lowest vocabulary learning strategy subgroup was cognitive. Besides, the most significant relationship was seen between the vocabulary size and cognitive strategies. Finally, multiple comparison tests revealed a significant statistical difference between the first and fourth graders’ vocabulary size.
Keywords: Word level, vocabulary learning strategies, vocabulary size
- Aktekin, N. Ç., and Güven, S.(2013). Examining the impact of vocabulary strategy training on adult EFL students. Mersin University Journal of the Faculty of Education, Vol. 9, Issue 2, pp.339-352.
- Askar, W.A.(2013). A survey on the use of vocabulary learnıng strategıes by ELT and ELL students of Duhok University in Northern Iraq. Unpublished MA Thesis, Near East University, Graduate School of Education Sciences, Nicosia.
- Baharudin, H. and Zawawi, I. (2014). Vocabulary Learning Strategies and Arabic Vocabulary Size among Pre-University Students in Malaysia. International Education Studies, Vol. 7, No. 13, 219-226.
- Brown, D. (2002). Strategies for Success: A Practical Guide to Learning English. New York: Pearson Education.
- Cohen, A. D. (1999). Strategies in Learning and Using Second Language. Malaysia: Longman.
- Erten, İ. H. (1998). Vocabulary Learning Strategies: An Investigation into the Effect of Perceptual Learning Styles and Modality of Word Presentation on the Use of Vocabulary Learning Strategies. Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation. Exeter: The University of Exeter
- Erten, İ. H. (2000). “Vocabulary Learning Strategies: An Attempt to Develop Taxonomy.” (19 - 20 Oct 2000. 4. International INGED Çukurova ELT Conference.
- Gorevannova, A.(2000). The Relationship between Students’ Perceptual Learning Style Preferences, Language Learning Strategies and English Vocabulary Size. Unpublished M.A Thesis. Ankara: Bilkent University.
- Gu, Y., and Johnson, R. K. (1996). Vocabulary learning strategies and language learning outcomes. Language Learning 46 (4), 643 - 79.
- Hatch, E. and Brown, C. (1998). Vocabulary, Semantics, and Language Education. U.S.A: Cambridge University Press.
- Hedge, T. (2001). Teaching and Learning in the Language Classroom. Hong Kong: Oxford University Press.
- King, G. (2000). Collins Word power. Glasgow: Caledonian International Book Manufacturing Ltd.
- Lewis, M. (1994). The Lexical Approach: The State of ELT and a Way Forward. London: Commercial Colour Press.
- Mackey, A., and Gas, S.M. (2005). Second language research: Methodology and design. USA: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
- Nation, I. S. P. (1990). Teaching and learning vocabulary. U.S.A: Heinle & Heinle Publishers.
- Nation, I. S. P. (2001). Learning Vocabulary in another Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Nation, I. S. P. (2002). “Measuring Learner’s Present Level of Vocabulary Knowledge.” (Workshop paper received by personal communication).
- Oxford, R. L. (1990). Language Learning Strategies: What Every Teacher Should Know. U.S.A: Heinle & Heinle Publishers.
- Özdamar, K. (2002). Paket Programlar İleri Veri Analizi 1 SPSS- MINITAB. Eskişehir: Kaan Kitabevi.
- Read, J. (2000). Assessing Vocabulary. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Richards, J. C. and Renandya, W. A. (2002). (Eds.) Methodology in Language Teaching: An Anthology of Current Practice. U.S.A: Cambridge University Press.
- Sanaovi, R. (1995). Adult learners' approaches to learning vocabulary in second languages. The Modern Language Journal. 79, (1), 15-28.
- Schmitt, N. (2000). Vocabulary in Language Teaching. U.S.A: Cambridge University Press.
- Schmitt, N., and Mccarty, M. (2001). Vocabulary: Description, Acquisition and Pedagogy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Schmitt, N., Bird, R., Tseng, A. C., and T-C Yang, T. C.(1997). Vocabulary learning strategies: Student perspectives and cultural considerations. U.S.A: Independence.
- Şener, S. (2003). The Relationship between vocabulary learning strategies and vocabulary size of the ELT Students. The Second International ELT Conference “Languages for Life”. Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, 22-25 May, Çanakkale, 2003.
- Singleton, D. (1999). Exploring the second language mental lexicon. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Tanyer, S. and Öztürk, Y. (2014). Pre-service English teachers’ vocabulary learning strategy use and vocabulary size: : A Cross- sectional Evaluation. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, Vol. 5, No. 1, pp. 37-45.
- Thornbury, S. (2002). How to teach vocabulary. Malaysia: Longman - Pearson Education Limited.
- Ur, P. (2002). A Course in language teaching: Practice and Theory.GB: Cambridge University Press.
- Williams, M., and Burden, R. L.(1999). Psychology for Language Teachers: A Social Constructivist Approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Zimmerman, C. B. (1998). “Historical Trends in Second Language Vocabulary Instruction” J. Coady and T. Huckin (Eds.), Second Language Vocabulary Acquisition U.S.A: Cambridge University Press.
The Organizational Culture At The University
Osman Ferda BEYTEKİN, Münevver YALÇINKAYA, Miray DOĞAN & Neriman KARAKOÇ
Manuscript Views: 102 | Manuscript Download: 53
Organizational culture is a vital element of effective management practices in universities. Lately, researchers are motivated to study on the organizational concept to provide managerial effectiviness in the universities. Furthermore, one should analyze the typologies of organizational culture to understand the organizational behaviours in higher education institutions. The purpose of this study is to explore the concept of current organizational culture at Ege University so the effective management strategies will be developed. The Competing Values Framework was employed to identfy the organizational culture type displayed by Ege University faculty. This framework assesses the dominant organizational culture based on four culture types: Clan, hierarchy, adhocracy, and market. According to the results of this study, Ege university faculty exhibits hierarchy culture type as dominant in the current situation. The hiearchy culture represents Ege university as an organization that concentrates on internal maintenance with stable and where individuals follow procedures, and leaders effectively coordinate and organise activity to maintain a smooth running organisation. However, the strategic objectives of Ege University emphasize the attributes of mainly adhocracy and clan culture types and market culture to some extent. This implies that Ege University’s mission, goals, and strategic objectives are not mostly being met with the dominant current culture type. On the other hand, the second dominant culture type for Ege University is the market culture which is mostly adequate to the strategic objectives of the university. The market culture organization concentrates on results to be achieved and the competition is the significant attribute in this type. Researches on organizational culture indicate that mission, goals and strategic objectives of an organization shouldn’t conflict with the current culture and they must work together to enhance effectiveness of the organization.
Keywords: Organizational culture, university management, competing values framework.
- Açıkgöz, B. (2006). Rekabetçi değerler yaklaşımı açısından yöneticilerin örgüt kültürünei ilişkin algılamaları, Zonguldak Karaelmas Üniversitesi örneği. Unpublished master’s thesis, Zonguldak Karaelmas Üniversitesi.
- Antic, M., & Ceric, A. (2008). Organizational culture of faculty of civil engineering, University of Zagreb, 8th International Conference, Organization, Technology, Management in Construction, Zagreb. http://crosbi.znanstvenici.hr/datoteka/396954.Antic20Ceric.pdf
- Bartell, M. (2003). Internationalization of universities: A university culture-based framework. Higher Education, 45, 43-70.
- Cameron, K. S., Ettington D. R. (1988). The conceptual foundation of organizational culture. Division of Research School of Business Administration.University of Michigan, Michigan.
- Cameron, K.S., & Freeman, S.J. (1991). Cultural congruence, strength and type: relationships to effectiveness. Research in Organizational Change and Development, 5, 23-58.
- Cameron, K.S., & Quinn, R.E., (1999). Diagnosing and changing organizational culture based on the competing values framework. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company Inc., New York.
- Cohen, D. W. (1997). Understanding the globalization of scholarship, in Peterson, M. W., Dill, D. D, Mets, L.A. and Associates (eds.), Planning and Management for a Changing Environment: A Handbook on Redesigning Postsecondary Institutions. pp. 548-562, San Francisco: Jossey- Bass.
- Ege University. (2007). Strategic objectives for Ege University 2007-2012. Ege Üniversitesi Yayınları,İzmir.
- Fralinger, B., & Olson, V. (2007). Organizational culture at the university level: A study the OCAI instrument. Journal Of College Teaching&Learning, 4(11), 85-97.
- Folch, M.T., & Ion, G., (2009). Analysing the organizational culture of universities: Two models.Higher Education in Europe, 34(1), 143-154.
- Halis, M. (2001). Durumsallığı açısından Türk örgüt kültürlerindeki yönelimler – Ampirik bir çalışma,Yüzüncü Yıl Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, 2, 109-135.
- Hofstede, G. & Hofstede, G.J. (2004). Cultures and organizations: Software of the mind. Second Edition. New York. McGraw-Hill.
- Kezar, A., & Eckel, P. D. (2002). The effect of institutional culture on change strategies in higher education. The Journal of Higher Education, 73(4), 435-460.
- Kuh, G.D. & Whitt, E.J. (1988). The invisible tapestry: Cultures in American colleges and universities. ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report, No. 1. Washington, D.C.: Association for the Study of Higher Education.
- Quinn, R.E. & Rohrbaugh, J. (1983). A spatial model of effectiveness criteria: Towards a competing values approach to organizational analysis. Management Science, 29, 363-377.
- Pushnykh, V., Chemeris, V., (2006). Study of a Russian university’s organizational culture in transition from planned to market economy. Tertiary Education and Management, 12, 161- 182.
- Salonda, L. L. (2008). Exploration of a university culture: A Papaua New Guinea case study. Unpublished Doctoral Thesis, Victory University Of Technology.
- Schein, E. H. (1984). Coming to a new awareness of organizational culture. Sloan Management Review, 25 (2), 3-16.
- Schein, E. H. (1994). Innovative cultures and organizations. In (Ed.), T. J. Allen, and M. S.Scott Morton, Information Technology and the Corporation of the 1990’s: Research Studies, 125- 146, Oxford University Press, New York.
- Sezgin, O. (2009). Exploring the relationship between the concepts of organizational culture, organizational justice and organizational citizenship behavior. Unpublished Doctoral Thesis, Yeditepe University.
- Smart, J. C., & John, E. P. (1996). Organizational culture and effectiveness in higher education: A test of the Culture Type and Strong Culture Hypotheses. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 18(3), 219-241.
- Sporn, B. (1999). Towars more adaptive universities: Trends of institutional reform in Europe. Higher Education in Europe, 24(1), 23-33.
- Sporn, B. (2001). Building adaptive universities: Emerging organizational forms based on experiences of European and US universities. Tertiary Education and Management, 7, 121-134.
- Turan, S., Durceylan, B., & Şişman, B.(2005). Üniversite yöneticilerinin benimsedikleri idari ve kültürel değerler. Manas Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 13, 181–202.
- Wilkins, A., L., & Ouchi, W., G. (1983)., Efficient cultures: Exploring the relationship between culture and organizational performance, Administrative Science Quarterly, 28(3), 468-481.
The UEFA Concept of Fighting Against Racism Results of Training Activities and A Comparison to Turkey
Manuscript Views: 65 | Manuscript Download: 52
Football is meaningful with the contribution of fans and their enthusiasm. The enthusiasm of fans has got relative definitions. Some delirious acts of fans who are indispensable part of football, take precedence over football and these acts has reached a dimension threatening local government and public authorities. After 1990 Hate Crimes are added to Hooliganism, Violence and Vandalism which are defined as delirious act in sports. Due to the increasing racism threat, UEFA has decided to implement an efficient act plan in 2002. The developed Ten Point Plan has included advices and examples of application to Sport Clubs and Fan Groups. Although the Ten Point Plan is too detailed, in this research only programs which were practiced on fan groups, kids and youngsters at school age and the results of these programs are included. As the proposed programs which were offered to fans and NGOs, has become successful, it is seen that the greater success has been achieved in the programs and campaigns targeted kids and youngsters at school age. It is found out that there is a great difficulty to reach data to compare the research results in Turkey. In the level of Sport clubs no information could be collected on the other hand some limited information about limited activities of Fans and NGOs.
Keywords: Education, Football, 10-Point Plan of Action, Children and Youth, NGO’s
- Cerrahoğlu, N. (2006). Can Football Fan Associations Be Describ As NGO’s?. The Interaction Between NGO’s Private Sektor and State, III. International NGO’s Conference, Çanakkale/TR, Proceedings, (pp. 639 - 643).
- Cerrahoğlu, N. (2013). The Role of NGOs in the Fight Against Social Diseases football UEFA and TFF Case, 2nd International Conference on Science Culture and Sport, Antalya/TR, Abstracts, (pp. 36).
- Hunt KA, Bristol T, Bashaw RE (1999). A conceptual approach to classifying sports fans. J Services Marketing 1999; 13(6): 439-52.
- Steward RK, Smith AT. (2000). Sports watching in Australia: A conceptual framework, advancing sport management in Australia and New Zealand In: Quick S Contemporary sport consumers: Some implications of linking fan typology with key spectator variables. Sport Marketing Quarterly 2000; 9(3): 149-56.
- Winner, D. (2013). Challenging racism in European football ICSS Director Helmut Spahn talks to David Winner about effective tactics for confronting racism among fan groups. International Centre for Sport Security (ICSS); 1 (1): 56-61.